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He expresses admiration for the creature’s psychology, unhindered by conscience or morality, and taunts them about their chances of survival. Ripley cuts off his power and Parker incinerates him.

The remaining crew decide to self-destruct the Nostromo and escape in the shuttle. However, Parker and Lambert are ambushed and killed by the creature while gathering life-support supplies. Ripley initiates the self-destruct sequence but finds the alien blocking her path to the shuttle. She retreats and attempts unsuccessfully to abort the self-destruct. With no further options, she flees to the shuttle, carrying Jones, and narrowly escapes as the Nostromo explodes. As Ripley prepares for stasis, she discovers that the alien is aboard, having wedged itself into a narrow space.

She dons a spacesuit and uses gas to flush the creature out. It approaches Ripley, but before it can attack, she opens an airlock door, almost blasting it into space. However, it hangs on by gripping the frame. Ripley shoots it with a grappling hook, but the gun catches as the airlock door closes, tethering the alien to the shuttle. It pulls itself into an engine exhaust, but Ripley fires the engines, blasting it away into deep space.

After recording the final log entry, she places Jones and herself into stasis for the trip back to Earth. O’Bannon had written 29 pages of a script titled Memory , containing what would become the opening scenes of Alien : a crew of astronauts awakens to find that their voyage has been interrupted because they are receiving a signal from a mysterious planetoid.

They investigate and their ship breaks down on the surface. O’Bannon soon accepted an offer to work on Alejandro Jodorowsky ‘s adaptation of Dune , a project that took him to Paris for six months.

Giger , and Jean “Moebius” Giraud. I had never seen anything that was quite as horrible and at the same time as beautiful as his work. And so I ended up writing a script about a Giger monster. Shusett suggested that O’Bannon use one of his other film ideas, about gremlins infiltrating a B bomber during World War II , and set it on the spaceship as the second half of the story.

Shusett and he liked the new title’s simplicity and its double meaning as both a noun and an adjective. Dan [O’Bannon] put his finger on the problem: what has to happen next is the creature has to get on the ship in an interesting way. I have no idea how, but if we could solve that, if it can’t be that it just snuck in, then I think the whole movie will come into place. In the middle of the night, I woke up and I said, “Dan I think I have an idea: the alien screws one of them [ In writing the script, O’Bannon drew inspiration from many previous works of science fiction and horror.

He later stated,”I didn’t steal Alien from anybody. I stole it from everybody! Simak in which a crew lands on an asteroid and discovers a chamber full of eggs.

With most of the plot in place, Shusett and O’Bannon presented their script to several studios, [26] pitching it as ” Jaws in space.

That whole idea and scenario was theirs. Despite these rewrites, 20th Century Fox did not express confidence in financing a science-fiction film. However, after the success of Star Wars in , the studio’s interest in the genre rose substantially.

According to Carroll: “When Star Wars came out and was the extraordinary hit that it was, suddenly science fiction became the hot genre. O’Bannon had originally assumed that he would direct Alien , but 20th Century Fox instead asked Hill to direct. They wanted the Nostromo ‘ s crew to resemble working astronauts in a realistic environment, a concept summarized as “truckers in space”.

To assist the actors in preparing for their roles, Scott wrote several pages of backstory for each character explaining their histories. Roger Ebert notes that the actors in Alien were older than was typical in thriller films at the time, which helped make the characters more convincing:.

None of them were particularly young. Tom Skerritt, the captain, was 46, Hurt was 39 but looked older, Holm was 48, Harry Dean Stanton was 53, Yaphet Kotto was 42, and only Veronica Cartwright at 30 and Weaver at 28 were in the age range of the usual thriller cast. Many recent action pictures have improbably young actors cast as key roles or sidekicks, but by skewing older, Alien achieves a certain texture without even making a point of it: These are not adventurers but workers, hired by a company to return 20 million tons of ore to Earth.

David McIntee , author of Beautiful Monsters: The Unofficial and Unauthorised Guide to the Alien and Predator Films , asserts that part of the film’s effectiveness in frightening viewers “comes from the fact that the audience can all identify with the characters Everyone aboard the Nostromo is a normal, everyday, working Joe just like the rest of us.

They just happen to live and work in the future. Alien was filmed over 14 weeks from July 5 to October 21, Principal photography took place at Shepperton Studios near London, while model and miniature filming was done at Bray Studios in Water Oakley , Berkshire.

A crew of over craftspeople and technicians constructed the three principal sets: the surface of the alien planetoid, and the interiors of the Nostromo and the derelict spacecraft.

For scenes showing the exterior of the Nostromo, a foot 18 m landing leg was constructed to give a sense of the ship’s size. Scott was not convinced that it looked large enough, so he had his two young sons and the son of Derek Vanlint the film’s cinematographer stand in for the regular actors, wearing smaller space suits to make the set pieces seem larger.

The children nearly collapsed due to the heat of the suits; oxygen systems were eventually added to help the actors breathe. By removing the glycerin she was able to continue working with the cats.

Alien originally was to conclude with the destruction of the Nostromo while Ripley escapes in the shuttle Narcissus. However, Scott conceived of a “fourth act” to the film in which the alien appears on the shuttle and Ripley is forced to confront it. He pitched the idea to 20th Century Fox and negotiated an increase in the budget to film the scene over several extra days. Editing and post-production work on Alien took roughly 20 weeks to complete, concluding in late-January According to Rawlings: “I think the way we did get it right was by keeping it slow, funny enough, which is completely different from what they do today.

And I think the slowness of it made the moments that you wanted people to be sort of scared And I think that’s how it worked. One scene that was cut from the film occurred during Ripley’s final escape from the Nostromo ; she encounters Dallas and Brett, who have been partially cocooned by the Alien.

O’Bannon had intended the scene to indicate that Brett was becoming an alien egg, while Dallas was held nearby to be implanted by the resulting facehugger. Her trying to get the hell out of there, we’re all rooting for her to get out of there, and for her to slow up and have a conversation with Dallas was not appropriate.

Scott had originally wanted the film to be scored by Isao Tomita , but 20th Century Fox wanted a more familiar composer and Goldsmith was recommended by then-president of Fox Alan Ladd Jr. Scott and Rawlings had also become attached to several of the musical cues they had used for the temporary score while editing the film, and re-edited some of Goldsmith’s cues and rescored several sequences to match these cues and even left the temporary score in place in some parts of the finished film.

O’Bannon introduced Scott to the artwork of H. Giger; both of them felt that his painting Necronom IV was the type of representation they wanted for the film’s antagonist and began asking the studio to hire him as a designer.

The scene of Kane inspecting the egg was shot in postproduction. A fiberglass egg was used so that actor John Hurt could shine his light on it and see movement inside, which was provided by Scott fluttering his hands inside the egg while wearing rubber gloves. For this reason, the image of a hen’s egg was used on the poster, and has become emblematic of the franchise as a whole—as opposed to the Alien egg that appears in the finished film.

The “facehugger” and its proboscis , which was made of a sheep’s intestine , were shot out of the egg using high-pressure air hoses. The shot was reversed and slowed down in editing to prolong the effect and reveal more detail. Giger designed for the film, going through several versions in different sizes before deciding on a small creature with human-like fingers and a long tail. The design of the “chestburster” was inspired by Francis Bacon ‘s painting Three Studies for Figures at the Base of a Crucifixion.

For the filming of the chestburster scene, the cast members knew that the creature would be bursting out of Hurt, and had seen the chestburster puppet, but they had not been told that fake blood would also be bursting out in every direction from high-pressure pumps and squibs. The chestburster was shoved up through the torso by a puppeteer who held it on a stick.

When the creature burst through the chest, a stream of blood shot directly at Cartwright, shocking her enough that she fell over and went into hysterics. She had no idea what the hell happened. All of a sudden this thing just came up. The real-life surprise of the actors gave the scene an intense sense of realism and made it one of the film’s most memorable moments.

During preview screenings, the crew noticed that some viewers would move towards the back of the theater so as not to be too close to the screen during the sequence. For the scene in which Ash is revealed to be an android, a puppet was created of the character’s torso and upper body, which was operated from underneath. Milk, caviar, pasta, fiber optics , and Foley’s Urinary Catheters were combined to form the android’s innards. Giger made several conceptual paintings of the adult Alien before settling on the final version.

He sculpted the creature’s body using plasticine , incorporating pieces such as vertebrae from snakes and cooling tubes from a Rolls-Royce. For most of the film’s scenes, the Alien was portrayed by Bolaji Badejo. A latex costume was made to fit Badejo’s slender 6-footinch cm frame by taking a full-body plaster cast. Scott chose not to show the full Alien for most of the film, keeping most of its body in shadow to create a sense of terror and heighten suspense.

The audience could thus project their own fears into imagining what the rest of the creature might look like: [22] “Every movement is going to be very slow, very graceful, and the Alien will alter shape so you never really know exactly what he looks like.

Well, there’s one way to deal with that. The most important thing in a film of this type is not what you see, but the effect of what you think you saw. The Alien has been referred to as “one of the most iconic movie monsters in film history”, and its biomechanical appearance and sexual overtones have been frequently noted. The first time we get a good look at the alien, as it bursts from the chest of poor Kane John Hurt. It is unmistakably phallic in shape, and the critic Tim Dirks mentions its ‘open, dripping vaginal mouth.

The sets of the Nostromo ‘ s three decks were each created almost entirely in one piece, with each deck occupying a separate stage. The actors had to navigate through the hallways that connected the stages, adding to the film’s sense of claustrophobia and realism. However, the name and logo of the company appears on several set pieces and props such as computer monitors and beer cans as “Weylan-Yutani”.

Art director Roger Christian used scrap metal and parts to create set pieces and props to save money, a technique he employed while working on Star Wars. Giger designed and worked on all of the alien aspects of the film, which he designed to appear organic and biomechanical in contrast to the industrial look of the Nostromo and its human elements.

Scott described the set as the cockpit or driving deck of the mysterious ship, and the production team was able to convince the studio that the scene was important to impress the audience and make them aware that this was not a B movie.

The origin of the jockey creature was not explored in the film, but Scott later theorized that it might have been the ship’s pilot, and that the ship might have been a weapons-carrier capable of dropping alien eggs onto a planet so that the aliens could use the local lifeforms as hosts.

The band was testing the lasers for use in their stage show on the sound stage next door. I resent films that are so shallow they rely entirely on their visual effects, and of course science-fiction films are notorious for this. I’ve always felt that there’s another way to do it: a lot of effort should be expended toward rendering the environment of the spaceship, or space travel, whatever the fantastic setting of your story should be—as convincingly as possible, but always in the background.

That way the story and the characters emerge and they become more real. O’Bannon brought in artists Ron Cobb and Chris Foss, with whom he had worked on Dark Star and Dune , respectively, to work on designs for the human aspects of the film such as the spaceship and space suits.

The final name of the ship was derived from the title of Joseph Conrad ‘s novel Nostromo , while the escape shuttle, called Narcissus in the script, was named after Conrad’s novella The Nigger of the ‘Narcissus’.

Under Scott’s direction, the design of the Nostromo shifted towards an foot-long m tug towing a refining platform 2 miles 3. The spaceships and planets for the film were shot using models and miniatures. These included models of the Nostromo , its attached mineral refinery, the escape shuttle Narcissus , the alien planetoid, and the exterior and interior of the derelict spacecraft.

Visual-effects supervisor Brian Johnson and supervising modelmaker Martin Bower and their team worked at Bray Studios, roughly 25 miles 40 km from Shepperton Studios. Three models of the Nostromo were made: a inch 30 cm version for medium and long shots, a 4-foot 1. The Nostromo was originally yellow, and the team filmed shots of the models for six weeks before Johnson left to work on The Empire Strikes Back.

Scott then ordered it changed to gray, and the team had to begin shooting again from scratch. He also took a hammer and chisel to sections of the refinery, knocking off many of the spires that Bower had spent weeks creating. Scott also had disagreements with miniature-effects cinematographer Dennis Ayling over how to light the models. A separate model, about 40 feet 12 m long, was created for the Nostromo ‘s underside from which the Narcissus would detach and from which Kane’s body would be launched during the funeral scene.

Bower carved Kane’s burial shroud out of wood; it was launched through the hatch using a small catapult and filmed at high speed. The footage was slowed down in editing. The other shots were simply filmed against black backdrops, with stars added by double exposure. Scott added smoke and wind effects to enhance the illusion.

The Nostromo was pushed away from the refinery by a forklift covered in black velvet, causing the arm to extend out from the refinery. This created the illusion that the arm was pushing the ship forward.

A separate model was created for the exterior of the derelict alien spacecraft. Matte paintings were used to fill in areas of the ship’s interior, as well as exterior shots of the planetoid’s surface. The sequel Aliens named the planetoid as “LV”, [70] and both names have been used for it in subsequent expanded-universe media such as comic books and video games.

I mean, people were screaming and running out of the theater. An initial screening of Alien for 20th Century Fox representatives in St. Louis was marred by poor sound. A subsequent screening in a newer theater in Dallas went significantly better, eliciting genuine fright from the audience. The first consisted of rapidly changing still images set to some of Jerry Goldsmith’s electronic music from Logan’s Run , with the tagline in both the trailer and on the teaser poster “A word of warning The second used test footage of a hen’s egg set to part of Goldsmith’s Alien score.

Alien opened in a limited release in American theaters on May 25, Eager to begin work on a sequel, Brandywine sued Fox over their profit distribution tactics, but Fox claimed that Alien was not a financial success and did not warrant a sequel. The lawsuit was settled in when Fox agreed to fund an Alien II. Critical reaction to the film was initially mixed. Some critics who were not usually favorable towards science fiction, such as Barry Norman of the BBC ‘s Film series, were positive about the film’s merits.

Alien has been released in many home video formats and packages over the years. The first of these was a minute Super-8 version for home projectionists. LaserDisc and Videodisc versions followed, including deleted scenes and director commentary as bonus features.

A few months later, the set was re-released with the full version of Alien Resurrection taking the place of the making-of video. It suggests that the filmmaker has finally overcome the interference of heavy-handed studio executives, and that the film has been restored to its original, untampered form. Such is not the case with Alien : The Director’s Cut. It’s a completely different beast. In addition, the set would also include alternative versions of all four films in the form of “special editions” and ” director’s cuts “.

Fox approached Scott to digitally restore and remaster Alien , and to restore several scenes which had been cut during the editing process for inclusion in an expanded version of the film. Upon viewing the proposed expanded version of the film, I felt that the cut was simply too long and the pacing completely thrown off.

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NOVA visits this wilderness of ice, larger than the United States and Mexico combined, whose only warm-blooded residents are seals , skuas , penguins and scientists. NOVA looks at the one-child policy of the People’s Republic of China, a revolutionary decree with profound implications for a people accustomed to traditionally large families. Most neurosurgeons are doubtful, pointing to the central nervous system ‘s most apparent inability to heal itself.

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NOVA looks at the agricultural dilemma, the short term need for profit and long term needs of the land. As an important Indian health act comes up for renewal in Congress this Spring , NOVA explores the state of medical care for a proud but vulnerable minority. NOVA profiles the international statesman of science and learns that one of the giants of 20th century physics is also one of the country’s greatest humanists.

Season —85 [ edit ] Title Original air date Prod. Art Fleming hosts. Will this high-risk project prove to be a great leap forward or an industrial and sociological disaster? Who are these talented, courageous women? Stephen Jay Gould , the internationally renowned paleontologist and Evolutionary theorist, provides some surprising answers in this NOVA profile. Harold Edgerton , electronics wizard and inventor extraordinaire, whose invention of the electronic strobe, a “magic lamp,” has enabled the human eye to see the unseen.

Wrangel Island is not only the home to Siberian snow geese , polar foxes and Walruses , but serves as the world’s largest denning area for Polar bears. NOVA examines how modern science has been unraveling the mystery of this baffling ailment. NOVA takes viewers on a unique journey of discovery to find out why things are shaped the way they are and why they work so well. Does the process begin in the womb? And which comes first, language or thought? NOVA explores the fascinating world of baby talk and reveals the latest theories on this remarkable achievement.

Welcome to the world of pure mathematics. NOVA offers a look into a wholly abstract, quirky world of mathematics. They were all child prodigies.

NOVA explores the current efforts to learn more about the nature of giftedness. Telephoto lenses were used so as not to disturb the animals; filmmakers spent 18 months tracking the elk through the breathtaking Wyoming Rockies. Season —86 [ edit ] Title Original air date Prod.

NOVA follows a new generation of physicists in their search to explain the mystery of the universe. NOVA chronicles the new industrial revolution reshaping the American workplace. NOVA explores this provocative theory that challenges conventional ways of thinking about the Earth.

Today, however, this nomadic tribe has integrated communism into its way of life. His symptoms, caused by a bad batch of synthetic heroin, were indistinguishable from those associated with Parkinson’s disease , a degenerative nerve disorder that strikes the elderly.

NOVA traces the story of a “designer” drug which could lead to a major medical breakthrough. The result was a landmark study of the effects of hazardous wastes. NOVA explores the legal and scientific implications of the link between environmental pollution and illness. NOVA explores the “Fleming myth” and reveals the true story of the scientists who worked behind the scenes to develop the wonder drug of the century.

The two-hour documentary contains the most comprehensive information on “Star Wars” ever produced. Season —87 [ edit ] Title Original air date Prod.

Scientists suspect that violent events in the early history of the planet may have shaped Uranus and its strange collection of moons. NOVA looks at the medical, legal and moral questions raised by this new technology.

Only recently has it become possible to scan the skies in a systematic attempt to find out. NOVA penetrates the mystery of where animals migrate, why and how they get there. NOVA goes behind-the-scenes to look at the engineering effort to design a technically advanced sailboat. NOVA looks at the tragedy of the disease that need not be. NOVA looks at some shocking instances of pilot negligence and what airlines are doing to solve the problem.

Who is observing whom? It is not always clear. Was Freud right or wrong? NOVA profiles the enigmatic man and his controversial legacy. Shortly before Kistiakowsky’s death, he recounts his eventful career to interviewer Carl Sagan. A “talking” chimpanzee, an exploding volcano and a sight-and-sound space video are but a few of the memorable segments. Richard Kiley hosts. NOVA reports on the soil crisis in world agriculture—a plight that has already resulted in massive starvation.

NOVA examines the causes and cures of desertification. Season —88 [ edit ] Title Original air date Prod. NOVA kicks off its 15th season with a fast-breaking science story as it is happening. Narrated by Bill Mason. NOVA follows the urgent efforts to track down new medicines in nature.

Japanese industries are betting that the genius behind amorphous materials -a simpler and less expensive alternative to silicon -is onto something big. Historian David McCullough navigates through the canal and tells the story of the human drama behind the engineering feat.

NOVA accompanies scientists who are developing new techniques to predict when volcanos will erupt and how violently. NOVA looks at how planes and pilots are adapting to high technology. NOVA looks at efforts to make fires aboard planes less likely and more survivable. Paul in London and the Roman Pantheon. NOVA recounts this tragic episode and the happy surprise ending for the young whales who survived after being nursed back to health by the New England Aquarium in Boston.

NOVA examines the controversy surrounding the nation’s vaccine policy. Season —89 [ edit ] Title Original air date Prod. NOVA looks at the brave doctors and patients who make it possible. NOVA looks at some of the excesses of surgery, and at how new drugs and technologies are rendering some operations obsolete. Who commits it? And what happens when the perpetrators are caught? NOVA follows the epic journey of the human-powered plane Daedalus 88 from the early prototypes to its dramatic landing in the surf after a mile flight from the island of Crete to Santorini.

In the premiere episode, we follow a handful of students as they start their first year at Harvard Medical School under a revolutionary program emphasizing early clinical contact with patients. Part one of a ten-year study. As students take notes, he explains that creationism is a valid scientific explanation for the origin on life.

Once relying solely on the literal word of the Bible to make their case, creationists now argue that the scientific evidence is on their side. NOVA reports on this new twist in the long-running battle between creationism and evolution. Who built its celebrated statues and why? A laboratory test can tell them if in fact they will fall victim. In their shoes, would you take the test? Thousands of others face a similar choice: to know, or not know, if they will carry the genetic time bomb of Huntington’s disease.

NOVA looks at this incurable disease which affects 20, people in the US and threatens tens of thousands of others. Season — [ edit ] Title Original air date Prod. NOVA looks at the strengths and weakness of each of the surprisingly varied entries. NOVA tells the little-known wartime history of radar. Ethicists warn that it may not be such a good idea. Scientists hope that such close-up studies will supply the data to make better predictions.

Environmentalists worry that the gates may destroy the fragile lagoon that surrounds the city. Bells, trumpets, human voices and computers all perform. NOVA accompanies scientists who are studying the surprisingly rapid recovery from the blaze. Narrated by Peter Thomas. Acid Rain and economic development also contribute to stress on the West’s scarce water supply. NOVA looks at how China achieved what it did, and what in Chinese politics, culture and economy kept it from doing more.

The West won. Season —91 [ edit ] Title Original air date Prod. NOVA follows computer sleuth Cliff Stoll as he tracks a data thief through a maze of military and research computers. Mysteries abound in and around this big, blue world at the outer limits of the Solar System. Narrated by Patrick Stewart. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and dozens of moons star in this epic voyage of exploration and a new view of the Solar System.

NOVA looks at the problem of controlling substances that are easily produced and cruelly effective. There’s life in the old gasbags yet. Despite past disappointments, geologists still hope to divine the clues that precede nature’s ultimate upheavals. Narrated by Avery Brooks. NOVA questions whether their proliferation may spell an end to superpower invincibility. NOVA looks at the controversial strategies to save the world’s largest land animal from extinction.

At one time nearly extinct, these four members of the camel family are exceptionally well adapted to life in the beautiful high Andes. Researchers from the Centers for Disease Control in Atlanta are called in to crack the case. Helens a decade after its cataclysmic eruption to learn how nature is recovering from the disaster. NOVA covers the cold fusion controversy. Paleontologists brave sandstorms, heat and worse to find their fossils. NOVA looks at the question of whether present-day birds are dinosaurs.

Over the years, new fossil discoveries keep amending the answer. Rex Exposed ” February 19, Tyrannosaurus rex , a kind of dinosaur, recently turned up in a nearly complete skeleton in Montana.

NOVA follows the dig to extract the bones and looks at the science and lore of dinosaurs in general. Unexpected emergencies show that space travel is still far from routine.

Humpbacks, Killers, Grays and other whale species make their appearance in spectacular, never-before-seen footage both above and below the waves. Season —92 [ edit ] Title Original air date Prod. Some men take pride in their bald heads; others will go to great lengths to cover up. The first examination, the anatomy lab, the first death, the first baby-it’s all part of becoming a doctor. NOVA looks at the laborious-some say scandalous-process of compiling and releasing this religious treasure.

Will there be another deadly explosion? Think again: cartographers had to when satellite date revealed a peak called ” K2 ” might be the real champ. Which is the world’s tallest mountain?

NOVA looks at the intoxicating lure to fly even faster. A studio segment featuring experts with varying medical views will air as part of the minute program. A Nova Special ” December 10, This minute NOVA pledge special chronicles the building of the Worldwide Plaza , story office tower in midtown Manhattan, from a hole in the ground to a foot skyscraper.

Museums now employ scientists to find forgeries and give insight into the process of artist creation. Richard Dreyfuss narrates. Fire fighting teams from Houston and elsewhere are faced with a Texas-size job. The Cold War may be won, but these submerged super arsenals continue to prowl the deep.

During the Gulf War, environmentalist John Walsh did his best to save animals from oil spills, bullets and other dangers. How much is the subject of NOVA’s investigation of the mysterious aromas and hidden messages picked up by our sense of smell.

David Suzuki hosts. NOVA finds that ratings are getting more accurate but still are far from scientific. Astronauts operate the cameras on location aboard the Space Shuttle.

Season —93 [ edit ] Title Original air date Prod. Szilard drafted and Einstein signed the famous warning, which led to the building of the first atomic bomb. Using a detailed psychological profile, the unit helped the Rochester, New York police department catch a notorious serial killer who targeted prostitutes. Actor Patrick Stewart narrates. Did they migrate across a Bering Sea land bridge at the end of the last ice age , as we all learned in school?

Or did they arrive thousands of years earlier, possibly by some different route, as new archaeological evidence increasingly hints?

The Grand Canyon tells the story of nearly 2 billion years of Earth history plus the changes caused by three decades of human intervention. A noted Egyptologist, Mark Lehner , and a professional stonemason, Roger Hopkins This Old House , join forces in the shadow of the Great Pyramid of Giza to put clever and sometimes bizarre pyramid construction theories to the test.

The Xbox does not have support for Steamworks. Newell said that they would have liked to bring the service to the console through the game Counter-Strike: Global Offensive , which would have allowed Valve to provide the same feature set that it did for the PlayStation 3, [] but later said that cross-platform play would not be present in the final version of the game.

Valve’s Erik Johnson stated that Microsoft required new content on the console to be certified and validated before distribution, which would limit the usefulness of Steamworks’ delivery approach. Valve released an official Steam client for iOS and Android devices in late January , following a short beta period. The application also incorporates a two-factor authentication system that works with Steam Guard, further enhancing the security of a user’s account.

Newell stated that the application was a strong request from Steam users and sees it as a means “to make [Steam] richer and more accessible for everyone”. On May 14, , a “Steam Link” app with remote play features was released in beta to allow users to stream games to Android phones, named after discontinued set-top box Steam Link.

Prior to , industry analysts believed that Valve was developing hardware and tuning features of Steam with apparent use on its own hardware.

These computers were pre-emptively dubbed as “Steam Boxes” by the gaming community and expected to be a dedicated machine focused upon Steam functionality and maintaining the core functionality of a traditional video game console.

That was discontinued in , but now “Steam Link” refers to the Remote Play mobile app that allows users to stream content, such as games, from a PC to a mobile device over a network. Valve released the Steam Deck , a handheld gaming computer running an updated version of SteamOS , with initial shipments starting on February 25, In March , Google offered a prerelease version of Steam on Chromebooks.

Valve included beta support for Steam Cloud Play in May for developers to allow users to play games in their library which developers and publishers have opted to allow in a cloud gaming service.

At launch, Steam Cloud Play only worked through Nvidia’s GeForce Now service and would link up to other cloud services in the future though whether Valve would run its own cloud gaming service was unclear. China has strict regulations on video games and Internet use ; however, access to Steam is allowed through China’s governmental firewalls. Currently, a large portion of Steam users are from China. Following a Chinese government-ordered temporary block of many of Steam’s functions in December , [] Valve and Perfect World announced they would help to provide an officially sanctioned version of Steam that meets Chinese Internet requirements.

Perfect World has worked with Valve before to help bring Dota 2 and Counter-Strike: Global Offensive to the country through approved government processes. It was made to comply with China’s strict regulations on video games , featuring only those that have passed approval by their government. On 25 December , reports emerged that Steam’s global service was the target of a domain name system attack that prevented users in China from accessing its site.

The Ministry of Industry and Information Technology MIIT later confirmed that Chinese gamers would no longer be able to use Steam’s global service as its international domain name has been designated as “illegal” due to “illicit activities” which were unspecified.

The block has effectively locked all Chinese users out of games they had purchased through Steam’s international service, and that they would only be able to go through Steam’s China-specific application. Valve reported that there were million active accounts on Steam by the end of Valve also considers the concurrent user count a key indicator of the success of the platform, reflecting how many accounts were logged into Steam at the same time. By August , Valve reported that they saw a peak of 14 million concurrent players, up from 8.

Steam has grown from seven games in to over 30, by , with additional non-gaming products, such as creation software, DLC, and videos, numbering over 20, Though Steam provides direct sales data to a game’s developer and publisher, it does not provide any public sales data or provide such data to third-party sales groups like NPD Group.

In , Valve’s Jason Holtman stated that the company felt that such sales data was outdated for a digital market, since such data, used in aggregate from other sources, could lead to inaccurate conclusions. Developers and publishers have expressed the need to have some metrics of sales for games on Steam, as this allows them to judge the potential success of a title by reviewing how similar games had performed.

This led to the creation of algorithms that worked on publicly available data through user profiles to estimate sales data with some accuracy, which led to the creation of the website Steam Spy in The change broke the method Steam Spy had collected data, rendering it unusable.

Some have asserted that Valve used the GDPR change as a means to block methods of estimating sales data, [] though Valve has since promised to provide tools to developers to help gain such insights that they say will be more accurate than Steam Spy was. Steam’s customer service has been highly criticized, with users citing poor response times or lack of response in regards to problems such as being locked out of one’s library or having a non-working game redemption key.

In March , Valve had been given a failing “F” grade from the Better Business Bureau due to a large number of complaints in Valve’s handling of Steam, leading Valve’s Erik Johnson to state that “we don’t feel like our customer service support is where it needs to be right now”. Of those, requests for refunds were the largest segment, and which Valve could resolve within hours, followed by account security and recovery requests.

Greenlight expanded this to about 70 per week, and which doubled to per week following the introduction of Direct. Following the launch of Steam Direct, allowing games to be published without Valve’s curation, members of the video game industry were split on Valve’s hands-off approach. Some praised Valve in favoring to avoid trying to be a moral adjudicator of content and letting consumers decide what content they want to see, while others felt that this would encourage some developers to publish games on Steam that are purposely hateful or degenerate of some social classes, like LGBTQ , and that Valve’s reliance on user filters and algorithms may not succeed in blocking undesirable content from certain users.

Some further criticized the decision based on the financial gain from avoid blocking any game content, as Valve collects a cut from sales through Steam. Steam was estimated to have the largest share in the PC digital distribution market in the s. Competitors emerged with Games for Windows — Live in and Impulse in , both of which were shut down in and , respectively. They purported that having such a percentage of the overall market can be detrimental to the industry and that sector competition would yield positive results for consumers.

Because of Valve’s oversight of sales data, estimates of how much of a market share Steam has in the video game market is difficult to compile. Steam’s predominance in the gaming market has led to Valve becoming involved in various legal cases. In December , the French consumer group UFC-Que Choisir initiated a lawsuit against Valve for several of their Steam policies that conflict or run afoul of French law, including the restriction against reselling of purchased games , which is legal in the European Union.

The decision is primarily based on the court’s findings that Steam sells licenses to software titles, despite Valve’s claim that they were selling subscriptions, which are not covered by the Directives.

The company stated that it would appeal the decision. In August , BT Group filed a lawsuit against Valve stating that Steam’s client infringes on four of their patents, which they stated were used within Steam’s Library, Chat, Messaging, and Broadcasting services. In , the European Commission began investigating Valve and five other publishers— Bandai Namco Entertainment , Capcom , Focus Home Interactive , Koch Media and ZeniMax Media —for anti-competitive practices, specifically the use of geo-blocking through the Steam storefront and Steam product keys to prevent access to software to citizens of certain countries within the European Economic Area.

A January class-action lawsuit filed against Valve asserted that the company forced developers into entering a ” most favored nation “-type of pricing contract to offer games on their storefront, which required the developers to price their games the same on other platforms as they did on Steam, thus stifling competition. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Video game service. List of languages.

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